May 25, 2012 12:58
Nadia Mori, MSc, PAg, Regional Forage Specialist
Watrous Regional Services Office
Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture
Integrated pest management (IPM) is a well established practice in crop protection and can be a valuable approach in forage stand management. IPM means to have a well rounded weed and pest control plan which considers at all options from prevention to control methods available. The following components should be part of an IPM approach:
1. Monitor Weeds
Monitoring is the process of regularly inspecting pastures to determine if any undesirable plants are present. Scouting also identifies conditions which could favour the development of a weed infestation. For example a recently flooded area on a slightly saline soil may start to convert to foxtail barley.
2. Pest Identification and Biology
Correct pest identification is necessary in order to select appropriate and effective control measures. Consult with an agrologist or biologist if you are unsure about the identification of a weed or insect found in your pasture. Some basic understanding of the biology of the pest is also critical to effective control and prevention. For example, since annual weeds reproduce by seeds, control measures will be more effective if done before seeds are produced.
3. Weed Control
Weed control measures must be evaluated in order to select the most appropriate control measures and combine control methods effectively. Herbicide application is one form of control but other alternatives like providing rest during the growing season, mowing, targeted grazing, burning, biological controls and even hand rouging should all be considered. Each control method will have associated costs and make some solutions more economical. For example, cost of weed control procedure, cost of lost production, and cost of damage to non-target plants are some costs to be considered.
4. Evaluate Weed Control
Control measures must be evaluated to verify the degree of effectiveness. If adequate control has not been achieved, the reasons for the lack of effectiveness should be identified and corrected. Effects on non-target plants and impacts away from the target area must also be identified.
5. Recordkeeping and Program Management
A complete and accurate set of records is basic to any pest control program. Records will assist in identifying key information such as: which pests have been a problem; where the infestations occurred; how successful different control options proofed to be; what the actual cost of the chosen control option was; during which conditions control options worked or not; which conditions allow certain pests to become a problem (for example, site disturbance, drought conditions, or overgrazing).
For more information, please contact:
Watrous Regional Services Office (306-946-3220),
Agriculture Knowledge Centre (1-866-457-2377) or
Visit our website at www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca.